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Andrology Tests

Specimen Requirements Printable Version

Tests Explained Printable Version

Y chromosome microdeletions

Semen Analysis

Anti-sperm antibodies indirect (serum of both partners)

Retrograde Semen Analysis

Vasectmoy Check

Vasectomy Reversal Check

Sperm DNA Fragmentation



Tests Explained


Y chromosome microdeletion


The Y chromosome is the male sex chromosome. Some individual carry micro -deletions that greatly affects the manufacture of sperm in the testicles.


This test is done for patients who have very few (oligozoospermia) or no (azoospermia) sperm present in a semen sample and do not have any type of obstruction. This test identifies small missing segments of DNA from specific genes located on the Y chromosome. These missing genes are important for spermatogesis and spermiogensis.


There are 3 basic deletions:


1.AZFa is rare and the ost severe. Thereisnochanceofbeingabletoproduce sper.

2.AZFb there have been no docuened cases of finding ature spermwith surgical procedures.

3.AZFcisthemostcommondeletion.Successulextractionofspermwithsurgical proceduresoccursinorethanhalfofcases.


We test for 20 loci of deletion on the Y chromosome


Semen Analysis

Retrograde Semen Analysis


A simple test done by examining the ejaculate under the microscope for assessment of its macro and micro characteristics. Macro analysis is to measure the volume of semen, color, pH, time for liquefaction. Microanalysis is to measure approximate number per ml (sperm concentration) and total count in the ejaculate, morphology (shape of the sperm), percentage and quality of the motile sperm. Presence of white blood cells is indicative of infection.


Indirect anti-sperm antibodies on serum of both partners.


Anti Sperm Antibodies (ASA): The sperm is a motile germ cell that has one half the set of chromosomes present in the man. Accordingly these cells are different from the somatic cells.

Normally, the testes contain a natural barrier that acts as a protective layer by preventing immune cells from gaining access to sperm within the male reproductive tract. However, the barrier can be broken when testicles are physically injured, after a surgery (biopsy or vasectomy) or after a prostate gland infection. This results from the sperm coming in contact with the immune system resulting in the production of the antibodies. A high titer of anti-sperm antibodies can result in infertility, when the antibodies come into contact with a man's own sperm.


Indirect ASA: Both males and females can have anti-sperm antibodies (ASA) circulating in their blood. The antibodies can damage or kill sperm resulting in reduced motility or interfering with egg fertilization. A woman can have an allergic reaction to her partner's semen and her body produce anti-sperm antibodies. This kind of immune response is not fully understood. We test for the presence of antibodies in blood of both partners. Treatment is readily available by ICSI.


Vasectomy Check

Vasectomy reversal check

We spin the ejaculate and check for presence or absence of sperm in the semen sample




Sperm DNA Fragmentation


Spermatogenesis (meiotic division of the diploid somatic cell into four male haploid gametes) and spermiogenesis (changes in the gamete cells to become motile sperm) are two different phenomena that occur during the life span of forming the motile sperm. Sperm are like a rocket carrying a load. In most cases if the vehicle (rocket) is functionally sound, the load is assumed to be sound too like in semen analysis. Due to the modern life exposure to electromagnetic waves (laptop computer on laps), chemicals (inhaled insecticides or paints), or heat (sitting on leather chairs for a long time, tight pants), the Chromatin of the sperm is not well formed and is fragmented.


This test assesses the quality of DNA in sperm by measuring the percentage of sperm carrying fragmented DNA, normal DNA and loosely compact DNA. Fragmented and loosely compacted DNA-bearing sperm are incompetent in forming a viable pregnancy. Note: Semen with high count and motility may have high fragmentation and/or loosely compacted chromatin.

Male Hormone Panel

Specimen Requirements (PDF) Printable Version

Tests Explained (PDF) Printable Version

Total Testosterone

Free Testosterone


Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

Luteinizing Hormone (LH)


Inhibin B