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Specimen Requirements Printable Version

Tests Explained Printable Version


Tests Explained


Anti-Phospholipid Antibodies (APA)


Phospholipids are a main component of the cell membrane. Antibodies against phospholipids in the blood attach to the cell membrane. Positive APA is an autoimmune disorder that results in an increased blood clotting tendency that can cut off blood flow to the fetus. These antibodies can also cause the placenta to have a weak attachment to the uterine lining and may cause recurrent miscarriages.


Cardiolipin is a phospholipid, a main component of cell membranes. It is essential for proper cell functions necessary for embryo development. Elevated levels of antibodies to cardiolipin are an autoimmune disorder that may interfere with the ability of cells to function normally, and have been associated with venous and/or arterial thrombosis (clotting), lower counts of blood platelets, and fetal loss.


We test for 2 different forms of antibodies (IgM, and IgG) against the most common APA: anti-phosphatidylserine, anti-cardiolipin, and anti-β2 glucoprotein antibodies. Next in significance are anti- phosphatidylethanolamine, anti-phosphatidylinositol, anti-prothombin, and anti-annexin antibodies followed by other less common antibodies such as anti-phosphatidic acid and anti-phosphatidylglycerol antibodies.


Anti-phosphatidylserine Antibodies (IgG & IgM)

Anti-phosphatidic Acid Antibodies (IgG & IgM)

Anti-phosphatidylglycerol Antibodies (IgG & IgM)

Anti-phosphatidylinositol Antibodies (IgG, IgM)

Anti-phosphatidylethanolamine Antibodies (IgG, IgM)

Anti-phosphatidylcholine Antibodies (IgG, IgM)

Anti-prothombin Antibodies (IgG, IgM)

Anti-annexin Antibodies (IgG, IgM)

Anti- β2 glucoprotein Antibodies (IgG, IgM)

Anti-cardiolipin Antibodies (IgG, IgM)



Anti-nuclear Antibody Panel (ANA) (IgG)

Anti-dsDNA antibodies



Anti-La (SS-B) antibodies

Anti-Ro(SS-A) antibodies

Anti-Scl-70 antibodies

Anti-Sm antibodies

Anti-Sm/RNP antibodies


Some autoimmune disorders result from the body forming antibodies that attack the different components of the nuclei of normal cells. These antibodies can destroy cells leading to disorders like lupus and rheumatoid arthritis, and cause recurrent pregnancy loss or infertility. The ANA antibodies cause inflammation in the body or in the uterus during implantation. Many women with high levels of these antibodies are unable to become pregnant or carry a pregnancy to term as a result.


The anti-double stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies and the anti-histone antibodies measure the woman's immunological reaction to damaged DNA. When these are present in the blood, the woman's body may recognize her own embryos as foreign organisms and mistakenly trigger an immunological attack to eliminate the embryo.


Cancer Antigen 125 (CA 125)



Cancer Antigen 125 is a cancer marker protein first detected on the surface of ovarian cancer cells and is present in small amounts of normal tissue. This protein is elevated in ovarian cancer and some other malignancies. CA125 may also be elevated in a number of relatively benign conditions like endometriosis. The test determines pelvic inflammations and may be used to diagnose and follow up women with ovarian cysts and endometriosis.